It can be done to learn about the 武器 or to communicate a political message. 多亏了冷战结束后的军备控制努力, every nuclear 武器s-possessing country except for North Korea currently upholds a decades-long, 自愿暂停核爆炸试验.
Whether or not countries are conducting nuclear 测试s can be verified by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization through the 国际监测系统, an elaborate network of monitoring stations and laboratories across 89 different countries.
随着美国之间的地缘政治紧张局势升级, 俄罗斯, 和中国, these countries may reconsider their current commitment to refrain from nuclear 测试ing. 只要其中一个国家决定恢复核试验, 其他人可能会用自己的测试来回应.
A resumption of nuclear 测试ing would increase the risk of nuclear war.
Nuclear 测试ing raises the perceived importance of nuclear 武器s to security, increases the risk of conflict between countries with nuclear 武器s, 并允许国家发展 新型核武器. Nuclear 测试ing would also damage already fragile international nuclear arms control efforts, including the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. If these international agreements fail, more countries might seek nuclear 武器s for themselves.
Future nuclear 测试s would almost certainly be conducted at underground 测试 sites, which present less risk of public exposure because they are designed to contain radioactive material rather than release it freely into the atmosphere. However, underground 测试s can and have resulted in contamination of land and underground water. Occasionally, underground 测试s have also resulted in local and even 广泛的 contamination through the accidental leakage of radionuclides into the air from the surrounding rock.
The United States initiated the first nuclear explosion in New Mexico in 1945, 被称为三位一体测试. Since then, at least eight countries have collectively conducted over 2,000 nuclear 测试s. The United States has conducted over 1,000 nuclear 测试s, more than any other country.
在冷战初期, hundreds of nuclear 测试s were conducted above ground or underwater, 通常在殖民地和/或土著土地上. The radioactive materials generated by these nuclear explosions mixed with debris from the blast, 随雨落在地上, 或者被风吹散了几百英里, where they exposed hundreds of thousands of people globally to dangerous levels of radiation. Materials from these powerful explosions were also lofted high into the atmosphere, 它们在那里广为流传.
One of the worst disasters in the history of 测试ing, the 1954 Castle Bravo 测试 是由美国政府实施的, 放射性物质扩散到数千公里之外, sickening nearby inhabitants of 马绍尔群岛 and Japanese fisherman, and causing incalculable and intergenerational impacts to the environment, 健康, 和马绍尔人的文化.
大气试验的放射性尘埃引发了一场全球健康危机. A 1961年的研究 发现了锶-90, 放射性同位素, 生活在圣. Louis, Missouri area, hundreds of miles away from the nearest nuclear 测试 site in the Nevada desert. Efforts by thousands of scientists and the international public raised the alarm about contamination from atmospheric nuclear 测试s and urged global leaders to act.
By 1963, the international community had negotiated the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits carrying out nuclear 测试s in any environment that would allow radioactive material to spread across a country’s borders, 包括大气试验, 水下测试, 在外层空间进行测试.
The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty dramatically reduced and eventually ended atmospheric nuclear 测试ing. 但是核试验并没有减缓. Instead, countries with nuclear 武器s shifted to underground 测试 sites.
When the Cold War ended, the international community moved to end nuclear 测试ing for good. This effort was critical to 安全 the indefinite extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, one of the grea测试 international efforts to stop the spread of nuclear 武器s. 《617888九五至尊娱乐》, 1996年谈判，几乎得到普遍支持, 禁止任何核爆炸试验.
目前已有超过175个国家签署并批准了该公约, 《617888九五至尊娱乐》尚未生效. 让条约生效, a specified group of 44 states—those deemed most likely to be capable of 测试ing—must first ratify it. Most of the 44 states have done so, but eight, including the United States 和中国, have not. A resumption of nuclear 测试ing would make the possibility of the treaty’s entry into force yet more remote.
How long would it take for the United States to resume nuclear 测试ing?
How long it would take the United States to be ready to conduct an explosive nuclear 测试 depends on whether the purpose of the 测试 is to collect technical information or to fulfill a political objective.
Though the United States has observed a voluntary moratorium on nuclear 测试ing since 1992, it has also maintained the ability to resume such 测试ing at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. 根据 国家核安全局 (NNSA), it would take 24 to 36 months of preparation to conduct an instrumented 测试—one designed to collect useful technical data—for an existing warhead in the current stockpile and as much as five years to prepare 测试s aimed at developing new nuclear capabilities. 根据NNSA的说法, it would take as little 6-10 months of preparation to conduct a simple 测试 for “political purposes,” such as a show of force or an attempt to pressure another country, 如果总统暂停监管要求.
The United States doesn’t need to 测试 for scientific or safety reasons
The United States has determined that there is no need for nuclear explosive 测试ing to maintain its nuclear arsenal. 根据联邦法律的规定，美国宪法规定.S. 代码标题50, Section 2525 requires annual assessments and reports about the condition of the US nuclear 武器s stockpile to be submitted to the president and Congress. The directors of the US nuclear-武器 laboratories and the Commander in Chief of the US Strategic Command rigorously review the safety and reliability of each nuclear 武器 type and certify each year that the US stockpile is safe and reliable through a program of 基于617888九五至尊娱乐的库存管理. 这需要结合非核实验室实验, advanced computer simulations and forensic monitoring of the 健康 of existing 武器s. Replacement of some non-nuclear components with limited lifespans is undertaken through ‘life extension’ programs. 根据2022年 核态势评估报告, “the Department of 能源’s 国家核安全局 (NNSA) stockpile stewardship program enables the United States to ensure a safe, 安全, and effective nuclear deterrent without requiring a return to nuclear explosive 测试ing. This helps advance US non-proliferation objectives and sets a responsible example for all nuclear 武器s states.”
Right now, any US president could order the resumption of nuclear 测试ing for any reason. Congress can take action to ensure that a US president could not demand a nuclear 测试 for political purposes. 例如，他们可以:
批准《617888九五至尊娱乐》: 美国参议院应该批准《617888九五至尊娱乐》. Doing so will strengthen the norm against nuclear 测试ing and pressure other states, 包括中国 , 也加入了条约. US ratification is a critical and necessary step towards the treaty’s entry into force.
通过立法限制核试验; 直到《617888九五至尊娱乐》生效为止, the US Congress should pass a law that would require Congressional approval before funds could be used for a nuclear 测试.
停止发展新的核武器; The United States should refrain from developing and deploying new 武器s with designs that, 随着时间的推移, 是否会越来越不同于那些经过充分测试的. While many changes could be implemented without the need for nuclear 测试ing, the cumulative effect of those changes could eventually erode confidence in the 武器s design and encourage calls for resumed 测试ing.
为受害者提供援助和环境修复; 这不足以阻止新的核试验. 美国应该全面解决经济问题, environmental and 健康 consequences of its 测试ing program in the United States, 马绍尔群岛, 和其他地方. 国会应该扩大 辐射暴露补偿法 包括所有核试验的受害者, including the communities in New Mexico affected by the first nuclear explosion. It should also fully address the nuclear legacy in 马绍尔群岛 through agreements like the 自由联合契约.